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Sunday, 18 July, 2010
1. Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock. One of the oldest rocks on Earth. It was formed over 500 million years ago, and arose when the sand gathered at the bottom of the ocean that once covered the middle part of Australia. For years, the wind and rain fell on the rock. Now flat summit rises to 348 meters above the plains, and the base of the cliff stretches for 8 km. This rock is known that during the day changes its color. Above: At dawn and sunset rock is painted in dark red. On the color affects the angle of incidence of sunlight. Rays of light coming through the atmosphere, blue light is distorted, leaving a red, which makes Uluru glow red.
Another factor influencing the change of color: the area around Ayers Rock is flat, and as soon as the sun ducks behind the horizon, the area is in the shade, but sunlight still reaches the cliff. This contrast of dark and light stone foundation makes Ayers Rock light red. Bottom: rock, which is usually red, is shown in this photo after the rain, which is a rarity here. During the rainy season becomes a rock silver-gray, with stripes of black algae forming in the way of draining rainwater streams. The difference in color on these two photographs is striking.
2. Large prismatic source in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Large prismatic source - the largest hot spring in the U.S. and the third largest in the world - after those who are in New Zealand. It is located in the Middle Geyser Basin. Size of the source of approximately 75 to 91 m and depth - 48 meters. The source produces approximately 2,120 liters of water per minute, the water temperature - 71 degrees Celsius. Vivid color source - is the result of vital activity of pigmented bacteria, existing on the edges of the source of mineral-rich water. Photo: Tourists walk along the planking on the Great prismatic source.
3. Lava from the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii drains into the Pacific Ocean at dawn on July 1 in Vulcano. Thousands of park visitors come here every day to look at the eruption of Kilauea, which has lasted a quarter century. But some people living close to the boiling lava every day.
4. Pamukkale, Turkey. Pamukkale - unusual natural and historical place, with sparkling cascades of water. This is one of the main attractions of Turkey. In Turkish the word "Pamukkale means" cotton castle ". The dazzling white terraces (travertine formation) occurred on the hillside as a result of salt deposits of calcium-rich sources. The waters of Pamukkale are famous for their curative effects on the eyes and skin. Air Pamukkale benefit patients with asthma, rheumatism. (Michele Burgess, Corbis)
6. Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef - the largest system of coral reefs in the world, consisting of 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching over a distance 2574 km. Reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in northeast Australia. Large coral reef can be seen from outer space. It is the largest structure created from living organisms.
In 1981 this place became a place of World Heritage. It is considered one of the seven modern wonders of the world.
7. Ngorongoro Crater. Ngorongoro Crater - the largest whole, undrowned volcanic caldera. The crater, formed by the collapse of a major eruption about 2.5 million years ago, is in the depth of 600 meters, and its floor covers an area of 26400 hectares. The bottom of the crater is situated at an altitude of 2,380 m above sea level. Its edges are approximately 600 m above and rise to 3000 m above sea level. Photo: a herd of zebras walking in the salt lake Magadi in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.
8. Victoria Falls. Victoria Falls more than 1800 meters in width, making it the largest in the world. Water falls from a height of 89 - 106 meters. The waterfall is located approximately in the middle of the river Zambezi.
9. Himalayas. The Himalayas, or "the bulwark of snow" - mountain system in Asia, consisting of a continuous line length of about 2574 km along the northern edge of the Indian subcontinent, from the bend of the river Indus in the north-west to the Brahmaputra river in the east.
The system of the Himalayas (in the width of an average 350 km) is situated on the Gangetic plain. Himalayas - the highest mountain system of the Earth, consisting of 10 world's highest peaks. Highest among them - Everest (8848 meters), which is located on the Nepal-Tibet border. The second highest peak - Chogori (8611 meters) - is located on the border of China, Jammu and Kashmir, and the third - Kanchenjunga (8586 meters) - is located on the border of Nepal and India. Photo: Lake Tsho Rolpa in the Himalayas.
10. Aurora. North (or South, depending on the hemisphere) lights - this is caused by the bombing of the upper atmosphere by charged particles moving toward the Earth along the geomagnetic field lines from the region of near-Earth space called plasma layer. It usually appears in the ionosphere. The collision of energetic particles of the plasma layer and the upper atmosphere are excited atoms and molecules of the gases in its composition. The emission of excited atoms in the visible range and is observed as the aurora. Northern lights usually appear from September to October and from March to April. This glow appeared above the river Talkeetna, near Palmer, Alaska.
12. Iguazu Falls. Complex Iguazu Falls has a width of 2,7 km and includes approximately 270 separate waterfalls, located in the form of a horseshoe. Many islands (including a rather large) separate falls apart. One of the most famous - "Devil's Throat", part of which is visible in this photograph.
13. The migration of wildebeest in the Serengeti. A herd of wildebeest gathered on a hilltop at sunset after a successful crossing of the river Mara during the annual migration through the Masai Mara National Park in Kenya, August 15, 2008. In the Serengeti - the largest migration of wildebeest. Gnu - herbivores, they are constantly moving from place to place in search of water and grass. During the cycle of migration wildebeest pass 800 - 1600 km each year immediately following the birth of calves in January - February. They move from the south-east Serengeti plains to the west, to Lake Victoria, and then turn north into the Masai Mara. Many are damaged, and the weaker or younger just die. By the end of the dry season wildebeest almost completely devastated pastures and return southward to the rainy season.
15. Stalactites and stalagmites. Stalactites and stalagmites - cone-shaped formation in the caves. This calcium deposits formed by dripping water through the ceiling of the cave floor. They look like large icicles. Water in caves evaporates, leaving the calcium. These calcium deposits are formed in two ways: stalactite - top down, a stalagmite - bottom up.
16. Rainbow. Rainbow - it is atmospheric optical and meteorological phenomenon, usually after rain or in front of him. A rainbow appears from the fact that sunlight undergoes refraction in the drops of water from rain or fog, hovering in the atmosphere. Rainbow has the form of multi-colored arc with red on the outside and violet inside. The most beautiful rainbow appears when half the sky is still dark with clouds, but the one who looks at a rainbow, standing under a clear sky.
17. Amazonian rainforest. Rain forests in the Amazon - one of the largest natural resources. The vegetation of the forest is constantly recycles carbon dioxide into oxygen. The forest - the lungs of our planet. Amazon Rainforest produces 20% oxygen. This photo shows the thick jungle, and the process of deforestation in June 2008 in Manaus, Brazil. Forests in the Amazon - the largest tropical forest in the world. They occupy half of the total area of remaining tropical forests on the planet.
19. Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon - one of the deepest canyons in the world, cut through the Colorado River in Arizona, USA. It is located in the National Park Grand Canyon - it was one of the first national parks in the United States. Researchers concluded that the Grand Canyon was formed by the Colorado River over 6 million years ago. The length of the canyon - 446 km, width - from 6 to 29 km. Depth reaches 1600 meters.